Although apple trees need to be pruned in late winter, you can do some pruning in early winter to tidy up the tree and remove any dead or diseased branches.
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When pruning your apple tree in winter, there are a few general tips to follow. First, always prune when the tree is dormant. This means pruning during the late fall or early winter, before the tree starts to produce new growth. Second, always use clean, sharp pruning tools. This will help prevent infection and disease. Third, make sure to remove any dead, diseased, or damaged wood. This will help the tree stay healthy and prevent further damage.
Wait until the tree is dormant
The best time to prune an apple tree is in the winter, while the tree is dormant. This allows you to see the structure of the tree more easily and makes it easier to avoid accidentally damaging or removing healthy branches.
Prune in late winter or early spring
Prune in late winter or early spring, before new growth begins. Trees heal quickly from pruning cuts made at this time of year. Spring pruning also makes it easier to see the structure of the tree and make pruning cuts that will enhance the tree’s shape.
Avoid pruning in wet weather
Pruning apple trees is best done in late winter while the tree is still dormant. This allows you to see the shape of the tree more clearly and make pruning cuts that will encourage new growth in the spring. However, you should avoid pruning if the weather is wet as this can cause disease to spread.
What to Cut
When pruning an apple tree in winter, the first thing you need to consider is what to cut. You will want to remove any dead, diseased, or damaged wood. You will also want to remove any crossing, rubbing, or crowded branches. After you have removed all of the undesirable growth, you can then begin to shape the tree.
Remove dead or diseased wood
When pruning an apple tree, the first thing you should do is remove any dead or diseased wood. Diseased wood can spread infection to other parts of the tree, so it’s important to get rid of it as soon as possible. Dead wood is also a potential safety hazard, so it’s best to remove it before it has a chance to fall and injure someone.
Once you’ve removed any dead or diseased wood, you can start pruning back the live branches. In general, you should remove any branches that are rubbing against each other, crossing over each other, or growing in an inward direction. You should also prune back any branches that are longer than half the length of the main trunk.
When pruning, be sure to make clean cuts at a 45-degree angle. This will help prevent water and disease from entering the tree through the cut areas.
Cut back crossing or rubbing branches
Cut back crossing or rubbing branches to an outward-facing bud. These are the places where two branches are growing too close together and rubbing against each other. If left uncut, the branches will eventually damage each other, leaving wounds that invite disease and pests.
Remove suckers and water sprouts
Once the leaves have fallen, begin pruning your apple trees. First, cut out any suckers that are growing from the roots or trunk of the tree. These will compete with the tree for resources, and will never produce fruit. Then, cut off water sprouts. These are fast-growing shoots that come off the trunk or branches of the tree. They are usually weak and spindly, and produce little to no fruit.
Thin out crowded branches
Thin out crowded branches to allow more light and air to reach the center of the tree. Cut back branches that are rubbing against each other, or growing in the same direction.
How to Cut
Prune while the tree is dormant in late winter or early spring, before new growth begins. The best time to prune is usually February or early March.
Make clean cuts at the branch collar
Every cut you make should be just beyond the branch collar. The branch collar is the slightly swollen area where the branch meets the trunk. It’s important not to make a flush cut, which would damage the branch collar and interfere with the tree’s natural healing process.
Use the right tools for the job
The first step in pruning an apple tree is to choose the right tools for the job. You will need a sharp pair of pruning shears or loppers, as well as a saw if you need to remove any large branches. It’s also helpful to have a small ladder on hand so you can reach the higher branches.
Before you begin pruning, it’s important to understand the tree’s natural growth pattern. Apple trees typically produce fruit on 2-year-old wood, so your goal should be to encourage new growth by removing older branches. Once you have a good understanding of how the tree grows, you can start pruning.
The best time to prune your apple tree is in late winter, while the tree is still dormant. This will help stimulate growth in the spring. Once you have pruned your tree, it is important to give it some after-care to ensure that it stays healthy and continues to produce fruit.
Apply wound dressing to large cuts
Apply wound dressing to large cuts. You can use a commercial product or make your own by mixing 2 parts latex paint with 1 part horticultural oil. This will protect the wound from insects and disease and help the tree heal.
Monitor the tree for pests and disease
As your tree grows, keep an eye out for pests and diseases. These can be tricky to spot, so it’s important to be on the lookout for signs of trouble. If you see any unusual leaf or fruit damage, call your local Extension office for help in identifying the problem.